Explain the working of a hydro power plant using a labeled diagram.

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This answer is categorized in the subject Physics and for level Secondary School. 12 students answered this yesterday from cities such as Mangalore, Chinchvad and Nānded.

Question

Explain the working of a hydro power plant using a labeled diagram.

Answer

Answer:Explanation:In hydropower plant potential and kinetic energy of the water is used to rotate the turbine and hence generator to generate electricity.Following are some of the main components of the hydroelectric power plant.1. Reservoir: water harvested from the catchment area is stored in the reservoir which is then used to generate the electricity.2. Dam: it is made in the path of the river to make the reservoir to hold the rain water.3.  Spillways: Spillways are made to make the dam safe. When level of water is exceeds some defined point, it will discharge through these spillways.4. Forebay: when there is sudden change in the turbine load, in such cases there is need of temporary storage of water. This temporary storage of water near turbine is called as forebay.5. Surge tank: surge tank is build in between dam and the valve house. It is used to take care of the system load fluctuations.6. Penstock: it is water pipeline carrying water from dam to turbine.7. Prime mover or turbine: it is the main part of the power station. It is coupled with the generator. Turbine is rotated by the flow of water. As it is coupled with the generator, generator also rotates which produces electricity.8. Powerhouse: it consists of turbine, alternator and electrical equipment.9. Tail races: outlet water of the turbine is discharged to the river trough tail races.10. Selection of site:       Following are some of the factors that should be considered for     Hydropower Power Plant while selecting a site.                Availability of water                Location of the dam                Head of water                 Storage of water                Transport facilities                Distance from the load centreThe water turbine changes the kinetic energy of the falling water into mechanical energy at the turbine shaft. In simple words, falling water spins the water turbine. The turbine drives the alternator coupled with it and converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. This is the basic “working principle of hydroelectric power plant”. Hydroelectric power plants are very popular because the stores of fuels (i.e., oil and coal) are exhausting day by day. They are also beneficial for irrigation and flood control purposes.

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